Faculty examples of cohesive texts

time to complete: 20 minutes

Task:The texts below come from a variety of faculties and disciplines. Please look at them and identify what different features of cohesion from the list below the coloured text shows. When you think you know, scroll to the bottom of the page to view the answers.

Features of cohesion

  • linking words/phrases​
  • pronouns/reference words​
  • substitution
  • lexical sets/chains, repetition of keywords/ideas​
  • Ellipsis

1. Science

Lasers have found widespread application in medicine. For example, they play an important role in the treatment of eye disease and the prevention of blindness. The eye is ideally suited for laser surgery because most of the eye tissue is transparent. Because of this transparency, the frequency and focus of the laser beam can be adjusted according to the absorption of the tissue so that the beamcuts” inside the eye with minimal damage to the surrounding tissueeven the tissue between the laser and the incision. Lasers are also more effective than other methods in treating some causes of blindness. However, the interaction between laser light and eye tissue is not fully understood.

Swales, J. M and C. B. Feak. (2012). Academic Writing for Graduate Students. 3rd edition. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P.

2. Arts

In the ancient world, social customs determined separate roles and tasks for males and females. Traditional self-sufficient communities dependent on agriculture and fishing rarely had more than 20-30 categories of labour, in contrast to modern industrial states that have thousands of different job types. Some functions, such as religious and political leadership or medicine, were restricted to individuals with inherited or specialist knowledge. As civilization and technology evolved, however, specialization led to a proliferation of different forms of work. In this way, hunters, farmers and fishermen were joined by skilled craft workers using metal, pottery and wood.

3. Social Sciences (management)

The location of headquarters can be a contentious issue within MNCs (Forsgren et al., 1995). Thus, decisions about where to locate divisional headquarters have both symbolic and strategic dimensions, and they are often political as well. Unravelling the factors that motivate firms to relocate or that have a chilling effect on them from doing so calls for an eclectic approach. In this study, we draw on agency, resource based, and institutional perspectives, to investigate the drivers of divisional HQ location and relocation. Our study reveals a substantial and increasing tendency amongst large Norwegian companies to locate divisional headquarters abroad. We find that these decisions are driven by efficiency/effectiveness as well as legitimacy factors, thus adding to the burgeoning literature on strategic internationalization and ‘internationalization of the third degree’. 

Benito et al., 2011. Distant Encounters of the Third Kind: Multinational Companies Locating Divisional Headquarters Abroad. Journal of Management Studies, 48/2, 373-394

4. Engineering

Polylactide (PLA) has received much attention in recent years due to its biodegradable properties, which offer important economic benefits. PLA is a polymer obtained from corn and is produced by the polymerisation of lactide. Significantly, it has many uses in the biomedical field [1] and has also been investigated as a potential engineering material [2, 3]. However, it has been found to be too weak under impact to use commercially [4].

Glasman-Deal, Hilary. Science Research Writing for Non-native Speakers of English [electronic Resource]. London ; Hackensack, NJ: Imperial College, 2010. Web.


lexical sets/chains, repetition of keywords/ideas

linking words/phrases

pronouns/ reference words