Use some or all of the methods below to help you change the source text into your own words.
It is very important to remember that using only one of the techniques below is not enough. Paraphrasing requires that you change several elements of the source text before it is finished. Therefore, the examples are not finished paraphrases, but steps in the process.
Historians can say nothing about these persons or events.
Historians cannot say anything about these persons or events.
(Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020)
Interaction between local and international students could improve their intercultural competence.
Intercultural competence could be improved by interaction between local and international students.
(Law, Hafiz, Kwong & Wong, 2019)
The research attempted to discover reasons for this phenomenon.
The research tried to find reasons for this phenomenon.
The teacher helped the students register for the course.
The teacher helped the students complete the registration process for the course.
Note: Changing a word form will require further changes in a sentence e.g. order, adding more words, etc.
You can move clauses and phrases within the sentence (the word order)
Of the spectroscopic methods discussed here, NMR is the most recently developed technique.
NMR is the most recently developed technique of the spectroscopic methods discussed here.
OR divide one sentence into two shorter ones. This may involve using different linking devices, grammar and punctuation to the source text.
Although both groups made valuable contributions to the development of NMR, for which both Purcell and Block were jointly awarded the Nobel prize in 1952, Block’s group recognised the potential applications of NMR (40).
Both groups made valuable contributions to the development of NMR and Purcell and Block were jointly awarded the Nobel prize in 1952. However, Block’s group recognised the potential applications of NMR (40).
When paraphrasing a whole paragraph, alter the order of points in the source text. For example, point 1 in a paragraph could be point 2 in the paraphrase. Furthermore, you can group points differently from the source text (if the meaning is not changed).
Task: Answer the following questions to check that you have understood the techniques.